Reports show wrist fractures are the most commonly occurring fracture in women under 75 in the U.S. and Europe. Because some studies show that vegetarians consume less protein than non-vegetarians, there has been concern that a vegetarian diet may not provide enough protein to maintain healthy bones. Studies by Thorpe et al examined diet practices and wrist fracture numbers over a 25-year period of 1,865 women who participated in AHS-1 and AHS-2.
- Women who reported fractures were more likely:
- To be older
- To have a history of fractures
- To report low or no vigorous physical activity
- To have experienced menopause more than 15 years earlier
- To have never used hormones
- Among vegetarians, increasing vegetable protein reduced the risk of fracture
- Among those who ate the lowest amount of vegetable protein, increasing meat intake decreased the risk of fracture.
- Curiously, for non-vegetarians, the risk of fracture tended to increase when consuming higher levels of plant-based protein foods. One possible explanation is that the sodium in processed protein foods competes with calcium in the kidneys.
- Additionally, the risk of arm, elbow and hip fractures for Adventists was lower than for the general population.