Adventist Health Study-2: Early Findings

96,000 Adventists living in the U.S. and Canada

Man Running on Sidewalk


Every study member filled out a 50-page diet and lifestyle questionnaire at the start of the study. Every two years after that, participants fill out hospital history forms and list any hospitalizations and diagnoses of cancers, stroke, heart attack and diabetes during the previous two years.

Profile of Study Members

Our study is made up of 96,000 Adventists ages 30 to 112 from all 50 U.S. states, as well as Canada. Enrollment occurred between 2001 and 2007.  About 64% were members of the Adventist church by the age of 15 years. The study members are 65.1% female, with a mean age of 60.2 at enrollment. Additionally, 65.3% of our study members are White (non-Hispanic) and 26.9% of our study members are Black/African American. Our study includes small numbers of other ethnic minorities. Only 1.1% of our study members report being current smokers and 6.6% report current alcohol use.

Dietary Status of Study Members: 

  • 8% are vegan (No red meat, fish, poultry, dairy or eggs)
  • 28% are lacto-ovo vegetarian (Consume milk and/or eggs, but no red meat, fish or poultry)
  • 10% are pesco-vegetarian (Eat fish, milk and eggs but no red meat or poultry)
  • 6% are semi-vegetarian (Eat red meat, poultry and fish less than once per week)
  • 48% are non-vegetarian (Eat red meat, poultry, fish, milk and eggs more than once a week)

Below are links to summaries of relevant findings so far from Adventist Health Study-2.


Lifestyle, Diet and Disease

Levels of cholesterol, diabetes, high blood pressure, and the metabolic syndrome all had the same trend – the closer you are to being a vegetarian, the lower the health risk in these areas. Read more >

Fractured Wrist

Lifestyle and Wrist Fractures

Women who reported fractures were more likely to be older, to have a history of fractures, to report low or no vigorous physical activity, and to have never used hormones. Read more >

Father and Son

Minority Populations: Black/African Americans

AHS-2 has provided a health overview of its Black/African American study members, as well as its data on scientific research within the Black/African American community. Read more >

Open Bible

Adventist Religion & Health Study (Substudy of AHS-2)

ARHS aims to understand what specific aspects of religion account for better or worse health in a nationwide cohort of Adventists. Read more >

Staring at the Sun

Vegetarians and Vitamin D

A vegetarian diet was not associated with lower levels of vitamin D. Other factors, such as amount and intensity of sun exposure had a greater influence on vitamin D levels in blood than diet. Read more >

Read scientific publications from Adventist Health Study-2.