Abstracts for The Adventist Health Study Bibliography
Abstracts for The Adventist Health Study bibliography
Ref #1 - Hardinge MG
SO: Am J Clin Nutr. 1954; 2: 73-82
Ref #2 - Hardinge MG
SO: Am J Clin Nutr. 1954; 2: 83-88
AB: In the United States the vegetarian groups afford a singular opportunity to compare dietary intakes and serum cholesterol concentrations with those of control groups. Eighty-six lacto-ovo-vegetarian, twenty-six "pure" vegetarian, and eighty-eight non-vegetarian adults, adolescents, and pregnant women were studied. Lacto-ovo-vegetarians include milk and eggs in their diet but do not eat flesh of animals (meat, poultry, fish). "Pure" vegetarians eat no foods of animal origin. Details regarding the selection and composition of these groups, together with a report on their dietary practices, physical condition, and laboratory findings are described in the preceding paper. This study discusses the cholesterol findings.
Ref #3 - Hardinge MG
SO: Am J Clin Nutr. 1958; 6: 523-525
AB: An investigation of the nutritional, physical, and laboratory findings, together with the dietary and serum levels of cholesterol, of 88 non-vegetarian, 86 lacto-ovo-vegetarian, and 26 "pure" vegetarian adults, adolescents, and pregnant women was reported earlier. Lacto-ovo-vegetarians include milk and eggs in their diet but do not eat flesh of animals (meat, poultry, fish). "Pure" vegetarians eat no food of animal origin. The details concerning the selection and composition of these groups are described in the preceding papers. The present study deals with the fiber content of the diets of these several groups.
The food composition tables of the U.S. Department of Agriculture provided most of the data for the computation of the fiber content of the foods consumed. In a few instances information was also obtained from other sources.
Ref #5 - Downs RA
SO: Bull Amer Assoc Pub Health Dent. 1958; 18: 19-21
Ref #6 - Wynder EL
SO: Cancer. 1959; 12: 1016-1028
AB: Numerous statistical investigations have indicated that smoking and excess drinking play a role in the etiology in certain diseases. Smoking is considered to be one of the causes of cancer of the respiratory tract and is also suspected to increase the risk for myocardial infarction. Excessive drinking, mostly of hard liquors, has been found to affect the development of cancer of the mouth, larynx, and esophagus. In view of the available evidence, it was of interest to study the incidence of cancer and coronary artery disease among a population group consisting mainly of nonsmokers and nondrinkers. The Seventh-Day Adventists, a religious group of about 300,000 members in the United States, represent such a group of individuals since their religion prohibits smoking and drinking.
The purpose of this study was, first, to review admission records of Seventh-Day Adventist hospitals and to determine the relative admission rates of Seventh-Day Adventists with a given disease compared to all other admissions and, second, to obtain data on the past and present smoking and drinking habits, as well as other background data on Seventh-Day Adventists.
Ref #7 - Donnelly CJ
SO: Public Health Rep. 1961; 76:209-212
Ref #8 - Hardinge MG
SO: Am J Clin Nutr. 1962; 10: 516-524
AB: A nutritional study of eighty-six lacto-ovo-vegetarians, twenty-six "pure" vegetarians and eighty-eight nonvegetarians, including a description of the diets with various nutrient calculations, was published earlier. The serum cholesterol levels of these groups as related to fat intake and the fiber in the diet have also been reported.
This report presents the component fatty acids and the iodine values of fats consumed by these subjects, and their correlations with the serum cholesterol values. A table of fatty acids compiled by us and a more recent one by the Department of Agriculture were used as the basis for these calculations.
Ref #9 - Dysinger PW
SO: Dis Chest. 1963; 43: 17-26
Ref #10 - Larsson E
SO: Obstet Gynecol. 1963; 22: 630-635
Ref #11 - Hardinge MG
SO: J Am Dietet Assoc. 1963; 43: 545-549
Ref #12 - Hardinge MG
SO: J Am Dietet Assoc. 1963; 43: 550-558
Ref #13 - Hardinge MG
SO: J Am Dietet Assoc. 1963; 43: 537-542
Ref #14 - Walden RT
SO: Am J Med. 1964; 36: 269-276
AB: Ischemic heart disease is not only the most common cause of death among adult white Americans but has apparently increased in frequency in recent years. There is a growing belief that this is partially related to environmental factors peculiar to the so-called "highly-civilized" societies. Among isolated segments of the population, however, the environment differs from that which encompasses most Americans. One such segment is the Seventh-day Adventists, a denomination in which the maintenance of a healthy body is incorporated into religious dogma.
The external factors that influence the lives of the Seventh-day Adventists are different from those of the average American in several respects. As a group, Seventh-day Adventists use much less meat and fat of animal origin, and they do not use caffeine-containing beverages. With infrequent exceptions, they do not use tobacco or alcohol in any form. Stresses related to the rapid pace of American life, and self-imposed tensions incident to worry, ambition to competition may also be less, although objective proof of this is difficult to obtain.
Wynder and Lemon found that hospital admissions for coronary artery disease were approximately 40 per cent less among Seventh-day Adventist men than among men in the general population, only 15 per cent less than that expected among Seventh-day Adventist women. In the Seventh-day Adventists observed, the marked difference in the pattern of ischemic heart disease between men and women that is seen in the general white population was not evident; in fact, there was rather a striking similarity between men and women in terms of incidence and age distribution.
The present study attempts to clarify possible interrelationships between environmental factors, serum esterified fatty acids and the occurrence of ischemic heart disease by comparing a population living under "atypical environmental conditions" (the Seventh-day Adventists), with one sharing a standard American environment (white adults in New York City).
Ref #15 - Lemon FR
SO: Cancer. 1964; 17: 486-497
Ref #16 - Wynder EL
SO: Am Rev Resp Dis. 1965; 91: 679-700
Ref #17 - Hardinge MG
SO: J Am Diet Assoc. 1966; 48: 25-28
AB: In earlier publications, we presented nutritional studies of eighty-six lacto-ovo-vegetarians, twenty-six pure vegetarians, and eighty-eight nonvegetarians. These include a description of the diets, nutrient intakes, and health findings, serum cholesterol levels as related to fat consumption, the fiber content of the diet, and the dietary fatty acids in relation to the serum cholesterol.
This paper considers the essential plus two related amino acids of the dietary proteins of our subjects.
Ref #18 - Lemon FR
SO: J-Amer-Med-Assoc. 1966; 198:117-126.
AB: There were 850 deaths among 11,071 Seventh-Day Adventist (SDA) men from 1958 to 1962. The group was similar to other men in California except for occupation, and older age distribution, and much less tobacco exposure. The total number of deaths observed and death from respiratory disease were approximately one half and one fourth, respectively, of that expected at comparable ages for California men. In the SDA group, the 28 deaths contributed to by emphysema or lung cancer were concentrated in a minority with a history of heavy tobacco usage; only one such death occurred among 3,913 (35%) SDA "lifetime" members who had never smoked. The findings from this study are consistent with previous epidemiologic studies and predictions of a large reduction in lung cancer and other mortality in any nonsmoking US population. The findings support the causal relationship of cigarette smoking to lung cancer but discount the "selection or constitutional" theory.
Ref #19 - Glass RL
SO: J Dent Child. 1966; 33: 22-23
Ref #20 - Holmes CB
SO: J-Dent-Res. 1967 Jul-Aug; 46(4): 650-5
AB: The prevalence of dental caries and periodontal disease has been observed to vary widely in population groups in countries throughout the world and to vary within the same population groups of the same country. The efforts to determine factors that have a correlation with periodontal disease have shown that age and oral hygiene explain more than 90 percent of the variance in group periodontal index scores. The single factor with the most profound effect on the prevalence and pattern of dental caries is the ingestion of adequate amounts fluorides, although there is an association of sugar consumption and dental caries prevalence as determined by ICNND teams.
Three studies suggest a lower dental caries prevalence in children of Seventh-Day Adventist children. The present study was conducted in 1963 and 1964 to extend this comparison to older children and to include other variables, such as oral hygiene, periodontal status, dietary patterns as reflected in 1-day diet histories, salivary caries susceptibility tests as measured by the SLC tube test and Lactobacillus plate count, and reported number of daily tooth brushing frequency. This report is limited to nine variables of interest: decayed surfaces (DS), missing surfaces (MS), filled surfaces (FS), DMF surfaces (DMFS), oral hygiene index (OHI-S), debris index (DI-S), calculus index (CI-S), periodontal index (PI), and tooth brushing frequency (TBF) in four groups (two Adventist groups and two non-Adventist groups). Details of the methods used in collecting and processing this data obtained with the DMFS index, PI and OHI-S have been presented previously.
Ref #21 - Marsh AG
SO: J-Am-Diet-Assoc. 1967 Nov; 51(5): 441-6
Ref #22 - Mozar HN
SO: Med-Arts-Sci. 1967 May-Aug; 21(2): 59-63
AB: Seventh-day Adventists do not drink alcoholic beverages and do not smoke for reasons which they believe are founded on health and moral principles. Many prefer a lactovegetarian diet and drink no coffee, tea, or other beverages containing caffeine.
Under the social pressures of a nonabstentious, affluent society, the practice of multiple abstentions could be a frustrating experience. Therefore, a representative population of Seventh-day Adventists was studied in order to assess the mental health status of such a relatively abstemious group.
This paper presents the results of a mental health home survey in which questionnaire-guided interviews were held with 265 white Seventh-day Adventist church members and an equal number of white nonmembers.
Ref #23 - West RO
SO: Am-J-Clin-Nutr. 1968 Aug; 21(8): 853-62
AB: The serum cholesterol levels and the dietary habits of a voluntary study group of 466 Seventh-day Adventists in Washington, D.C., suburban area were compared to determine the influence of diet on serum cholesterol levels in an adult population whose only environmental differences related to dietary practices - adherence to vegetarianism. This study matched vegetarians with nonvegetarians from the same base population according to several physical and demographic variables - place of residence, age, sex, marital status, height, weight, and occupation - and examined the effects of various levels of meat, fish, and fowl consumption (degrees of nonvegetarianism) on serum cholesterol levels. With the exception of those under 25 years of age, the results showed that the nonvegetarians had higher serum cholesterol levels than the vegetarians.
Ref #24 - Amundsen W
SO: Am Ann Deaf. 1968 Sep; 113(4): 896-7